Sunday, May 24, 2020
Anne Moody, a black activist in the twentieth century, wrote an autobiography, Coming of Age in Mississippi, which illustrated how life was like growing up poor and black in the rural south. She wrote in details of her life living in the racist society and what it meant to be black in the South twentieth century. Readers were able to understand her personal thoughts as well as her memories of the fight growing up in the south and her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement. Moody grew up with a poor family and faced many challenges throughout her life. Anne MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s life is representative of the black experience in the American twentieth century by experiencing racism, and unfair prejudice; but also being persistent in her life and with the struggle to defeat white oppression. In her autobiography, Anne Moody emphasized racism and how it affected her life growing up in the twentieth century. All throughout AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, white people asserted that they were superior to whites. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Toosweet Davis, worked as a maid for a white family. One of AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s first encounteringÃ¢â¬â¢s with racism is when her mother brought home leftovers from the white families home. Anne stated that the food her mother had brought home was the best food she had ever eaten, and that was when she had discovered that the white people seemed to be different that her. Also, being that Anne was a quick-witted child, she was able to identify racial situations around her growing up. For example, as aShow MoreRelatedAnne Moody s Coming Of Age1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnne Moody is the author of Coming of Age in Mississippi which was originally published in 1968. Anne Moody is a famous African American Mississippi author who was born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi on September 15, 1940. She was the eldest of nine children born to Fred and Elnire Moody. While growing up in Mississippi, Moody attended a segregated school where she was an outstanding scho lar. Moody cleaned houses in order to keep food on the table and clothes on her family membersÃ¢â¬â¢ backs. In 1961Read MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the story, Anne Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi, Anne known as Essie Mae found out the meaning of racism at a young age and also see or heard what whites do to black people if they did not like what they was doing. She did not know that whites and blacks had their own place to sit and eat or why whites went to one school and blacks went to another. She just assumes that whites went to the school that was close to their neighborhood, but Essie Mae experience her first meaning of segregationRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age Essay1826 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHIST278 Essay One - Joseph Malthus, 42863655 Anne MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Coming of Age in Mississippi is a story of a black girl growing up in the American Deep South during the development of the Civil Rights Movement. Moody notices the racism that envelops her life and attempts to understand why it exists, despite the absence of reasonable grounding. Suffocating under the restrictions and fear caused by systematic racism, she ultimately decides to become an activist, and takes an active role in demanding equalityRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dial, 1968. Print.Ã¢â¬ Anne Moody was a determined, educated, and an inspiring civil rights activist who was born in Gloster, Mississippi. Born on September 15th, 1940-passed away February 5th, 2015 Anne Moody dedicated her life to making the United States a better place for not only African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s, but pleaded for equality amongst all races as well. Awarded best book of the year in 1969 by the National Library Association, Anne Moody writesRead MoreAnne Moody s Coming Of Age During Mississippi And Non Violent Vs. Violent Protest For Civil Rights1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSamuel Conner Professor M. Du Bois HIST1025-002 October 30, 2015 Dreamers Instead of Leaders: Anne MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Coming of Age in Mississippi and Non-Violent vs. Violent Protest for Civil Rights The American Civil Rights Movement in the late 1950s and 1960s generated massive international following and controversy, which made the movement one of the most important in U.S. history. The movementÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy can still be felt today, with the positive aspects, such as voting rights to African Americans and wideRead MoreComing Of Age Throughout Mississippi By Anne Moody1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay Fredric Stanley HIST 3881 Professor James Conway 7 November 2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Though we Americans, in all of our efforts, feel as if the day of racism is coming to an end, I feel it is merely evolving into a much more subtle approach. Seeing life through the words of Anne Moody in her book entitled, Coming of Age in Mississippi, shows that racism, even back then, is treated with remedies versus a cure. After the many anti-discrimination legislations passed as well asRead More Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody Essay examples1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComing of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The autobiography Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody is the story of her life as a poor black girl growing into adulthood. Moody chose to start at the beginning - when she was four-years-old, the child of poor sharecroppers working for a white farmer. She overcomes obstacles such as discrimination and hunger as she struggles to survive childhood in one of the most racially discriminated states in America. In telling the story of her lifeRead MoreComing Of Age Throughout Mississippi By Anne Moody1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the autobiography Ã¢â¬Å"Coming of age in MississippiÃ¢â¬ by Anne Moody known as Essie Mae in the book she writes in great detail the struggles her and other people of her color had to go through in order to gain their rights. From such a young age she saw the differences in the way people of color were treated in comparison to whites, things that no one should go through much less a kid. From the beginning you see that Essie Mae i s such a brilliant kid and all the trials she goes through and the knowledgeRead More Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay example639 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The first main event that I believe led to Anne Moody becoming an activist for Civil Rights was when she was younger, her cousin George Lee was babysitting and he burned down the house in a fit of rage and when Daddy gets home he blames it on Essie Mae (Anne Moody). This foreshadows all of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s injustices that will be thrown her way. The next time was when she made friends with white neighbors and they decided to go to the movies, Anne couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t sit with her friends, she had to sit in the balconyRead More Anne Moodys Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnne Moodys Coming of Age in Mississippi Coming of Age in Mississippi is the amazing story of Anne Moodys unbreakable spirit and character throughout the first twenty-three years of her life. Time and time again she speaks of unthinkable odds and conditions and how she manages to keep excelling in her aspirations, yet she ends the book with a tone of hesitation, fear, and skepticism. While she continually fought the tide of society and her elders, suddenly in the end she is speaking as
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The industrial revolution was a time when countries such as Britain and France began to modernize and develop more goods for the general public. This innovation of manufacture led to a large demand of goods by the general public. This demand could only be accomplished by enforcing a large workforce to do the labor of creating the manufactured products. Although this large workforce resulted in modernization of the country as well as an economic boost, the industrial revolution also caused horrid working conditions and the mistreatment of women even though they dominated the workforce. Documents 3, 4, and 5 show how workers in the industrial revolution were placed in working conditions that were unbearable. A MeijiÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This document shows the idea of disrespect of women independence and the stunting of it. Although this document does not show physical mistreatment, it provides mistreatment in the form of ideas and thoughts. A document that can be added to co mplete this group can be statistical evidence showing that women are prone to being pregnant if they work in a factory due to mistreatment buy men. This would merge with the other documents because it shows proof that women were actually mistreated in the industrial revolution as workers. Although women were mistreated, they were the dominant workforce in the industrial revolution. Documents 1, 2, 6, and 10 provide evidence for this notion. Document 1 show statistics from the Oxford press how the numbers of female workers are largely greater than that of the male workers in English textile factories. Document 2 shows similar results of how women were the larger workforce in silk factories located within Japan. Document 6 states that women employment in Japan is temporary meaning that the females can be replaced at any time with new girl workers still containing female majority in work. In the West females stay in work after marriage but due to the harsh long work they cannot maintai n it and are then replaced. Document 10 was written by Harriet Robinson in 1834. It shows dominance of women by their ability to establish a revolt against their oppression. It also showed that womenShow MoreRelatedIndustrial Revolution DBQ Essay747 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The Industrial Revolution began in England during the 18th Century. This revolution started out in England, and spread throughout Europe and North America. Many technologic and agricultural advances were made during this time. Factories became the main source of production, rather than in home workers. This resulted in many people living in rural areas to move into industrialized cities, which was called rural to urban migration. The Industrial Revolution started in England due to its supply ofRead MorePositive and Negative Effects of Industrial Revolution Essay1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDBQ- Positive and Negative Effects of Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Industrial Revolution was a time of new inventions, products, and methods of work. The results of the Industrial Revolution led to many short and long-term positive and negative effects. These results have been assessed from many viewpoints such as the factory workers, the factory owners, the government, and other people who observed the conditions in industrial citiesRead MoreManchester DBQ1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgrowth of Manchester during the Industrial Revolution. According to the Encarta World English Dictionary, Industrial Revolution was the period when U.K. went through social and economic changes that involved widespread adoption of industrial methods of production. The specialization of tasks, the concentration of capital, and the centralization of work forces were important aspects of these changes. The major factor in the growth of Manchester was the Industrial Revolution. As a result, many issue s wereRead MoreAp Exam Essays1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescauses and consequences of TWO of the following population movements in the United States during the period 1945Ã¢â¬â1985. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Suburbanization Ã¢â¬ ¢ The growth of the Sun Belt Ã¢â¬ ¢ Immigration to the United States 2009 [pic]AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained fredom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of these changes took place. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved AfricanRead MoreEssay on Imperialism771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Imperialism DBQ nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout American History the U.S. has sought to expand its boundaries. This need increased greatly during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century with the start of the industrial revolution. This Expansion was a big departure from earlier attempts to expand the boundaries of the U.S. The needed for Natural resources forced the U.S to look for places that could supply them with the natural resources they needed and markets where theyRead MoreImperialism DBQ Essay examples636 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA.P. U.S. II DBQ What role did Imperialism play in shaping U.S. foreign policy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Prior to the late 19th century, the United States was preoccupied with domestic affairs and simply used the Monroe Doctrine as their lone foreign policy. By the late 19th century, however, domestic concerns suppressed just enough to let foreign issues take the spotlight. The Industrial Revolution brought mass production, which forced the United States to seek a new global marketRead MoreGermany Before 1848 Essay1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBefore 1848 Germany DBQ The political, economical, and social order of the Germanic states in the nineteenth century was in a state of chaos and disarray. Politically, the states had the desire of becoming unified and had the possibility to do so if it had not been for fear and neglect to follow through. Economically, the states were in a time of hardships with poor growth development in the fields and were also going through the time of the Industrial Revolution with changes to their everydayRead MoreEssay about Dbq 17: a National Clash of Cultures in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDBQ 17: A National Clash of Cultures in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s With the arrival of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, new battles fought between traditionalist rural society and modernist urban civilization arose in the postwar United States. These urban-rural culture wars of this time period represent the everlasting conflict between conservatives and liberals. The 1920 census demonstrated to traditionalists that their views were under attack by the modernists who gradually came to outnumber them. Traditionalists were disturbedRead MoreWorld War I Essay862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages DBQ Essay nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;World War I was the result of leaders aggression towards other countries which was supported by the rising nationalism of the European nations. Economic and imperial competition and fear of war prompted military alliances and an arms race, which further escalated the tension contributing to the outbreak of war. One cause of the World War was militarism, which is a policy in which military preparedness is of primary significance to a situation. Another causeRead MoreEssay on Roosevelt and Hoover DBQ1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRoosevelt and Hoover DBQ The Great Depression quickly altered Americas view of liberalism and therefore, Roosevelt can be considered a liberal and Hoover a conservative, despite the fact that they did occasionally support very similar policies. The United States experienced political shifts during the Great Depression, which are described by Arthur SchlesingerÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of eras in which public objectives were placed before personal concerns. It seems that the public view of what constitutes
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Colonial history also contributed to the stances of labor and the state. The colonial regime adopted a very hostile position towards the labor movement because labor was associated with the independence movement. Knowing that much of the leadership in independent Korea, including Park Chung Hee, was trained under the Japanese attitudes towards labor can be expected to have carried over. The specter of the Cold War is important to understanding the Korean labor movement. South Korea faced a very real threat from North Korea and anything associated with communism was suspect at the very least. Because the labor movement had traditionally been backed by leftist groups, including communists, it was viewed as threat by the South KoreanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Basic economic principles dictated that circumstances favored capital, but could not predict the actual working conditions in factories or the unrest that would come from them. Once the pool of labor inputs had been effect ively exhausted and political conditions changed, wages did rise and conditions improved. Women took a leadership role in unionization because of the roles they held at the bottom tier of industrial work. Though societal gender biases created these conditions in large part, the unionization efforts of women were not necessarily feminist in nature (Koo, 96). They were instead driven by class concerns which were particularly relevant to women. Women were paid significantly less than men and had little opportunity to advance into supervisory positions. This meant they had the least to lose from organizing and the most to gain (Koo, 93). Male workers on the other hand, even if exploited, risked foregoing promotions and wages, as well as social stigma if they participated in agitation. The role of the church in interacting with labor, particularly females, is significant. The church emerged in its role because it was one institution that was relatively immune to anti-communist char ges and repression (Koo, 78). Churches were a safe haven for airing grievances. Because of gender norms, churches were one of the few institutions
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Starbucks Employees Operating Philosophy. Answer: Introduction: The job roles and description has been given below in details, but does not limit to the following only. It is essential that the candidate is able to set short term and long term goals for individual and the stores under his supervision ("District Manager | Starbucks Coffee Company", 2017) Setting up plans that are realistic and achievable within a specified amount of time Creating district implementation plans in order to achieve the business results as well as excellence in the services (Jianfei, 2014) Manage the stores with honesty and integrity ("Starbucks.com, 2017) Communicate clearly and delegate the key responsibilities to the individual store managers and management teams Review the customer feedback of each store and assist the managers to achieve excellence and organizational goals ("District Manager | Starbucks Coffee Company", 2017) Ability to take up challenges The various responsibilities of the district manager of Starbucks are listed below. However, the responsibilities are not limited the ones that are listed. Lead a diverse team of various stores in a region, providing guidance to achieve the organizational goals, along with ensuring quality management ("District Manager | Starbucks Coffee Company", 2017) Responsible for managing the performances of the local stores under his supervision, along with knowing the markets, communities as well as the customers (Block, 2016) Creating district implementation plan and support the execution of the organizational goals Monitoring and managing the staffs of the various stores ("Starbucks.com ", 2017) Access external resources and manage the external stake holders Ensure adherence to the wages and labour policies (Block, 2016) Ensure implementation of the customer feedback and ensure customer satisfaction Ensure proper resource management Develop positive relation with the internal and external stakeholders Demonstrate effective management principles and create scope for innovation and development Supervise the overall working of the Starbucks stores within a particular province Masters degree in business with close working experience in the related field for minimum 5 years Experienced as a district manager or similar level for 3 years (com, 2017) Responsible as a store manager in any retail brand for 5 years Experienced in critical analysis of financial reports Experienced in working in a multi-unit environment Along with the required qualifications and experiences, it is important that the physical and mental conditions of the candidate be also analysed. The physical fitness include being free from any chronic disease or physical disability, that is required for the position of a district manager Along with being physically fit, mental stability and metal fitness is also required Display of sudden anger or negative emotions need to be avoided, along with the capability of taking up various challenges Lack of physical fitness or mental stability is not suitable for the job role References Block, P. (2016). The empowered manager: Positive political skills at work. John Wiley Sons Jianfei, X. (2014). Analysis of Starbucks Employees Operating Philosophy. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(6). Starbucks.com (2017) Retail Careers. Starbucks Coffee Company Starbucks.com (2017). District Manager | Starbucks Coffee Company. Starbucks Coffee Company.
Sunday, April 5, 2020
Do not get stuck in an endless sea of sources, follow our guide to get the best grades possible for your paper. Contents What is a research paper How to start a research paper How to outline your work Creating a bibliography Tips for the initial draft Editing your draft What is a Research Paper When writing a research paper, it is important to remember that it is different to an essay in that it includes information and ideas from other sources. Building on this information with your own conclusions is vital and being able to document the origin of information to avoid plagiarism. Generally regardless of the type of research paper that is being written, it should represent a particular viewpoint or argument. How to Start a Research Paper (Infographic) Choose a topic If your topic is not already given to you, then pick something that has meaning or interests you. The attitude you have towards the particular issue will be reflected in your research and overall writing. Make sure you pick an aspect to the topic as if it is generalized this can involve too much work and hard to focus on the thesis statement. Some research paper topics could include: The effects of global warming in the animal kingdom Effective ways to reduce air pollution The Effects of decriminalizing drugs Making prostitution legal having economic benefits The consequences of Brexit to the EU What threats do refugees have on a hosting country How do various religions oppress women The most popular new age religions Sexual abuse in the church Diabetes How to prevent Cancer effectively The importance of mental health State your thesis Try to write your thesis in just one or two sentences and think clearly what is needed to be proved. The thesis statement is the whole belief you are trying to prove or disprove in the work. An example of a thesis statement could look like: Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana has a number of medical applications, and this includes the treatment of symptoms for epilepsy, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Legalizing the use of marijuana will greatly benefit the medical sector by giving doctors access to this lifesaving drug.Ã¢â¬ Research as much as possible A good way to start your research is by going to the library and also looking at already reviewed research including scientific journals and articles written by experts. This kind of information is more reliable as it has been critiqued in the public domain already. The internet is by far the biggest possible source for any research paper and surfing the net for your chosen topic will give good results. Online surfing tips: Thoughtful use of search engines is vital, therefore donÃ¢â¬â¢t only take the top three search results and trust these. Look through many different sites and get a feel to what information is correct and useful. The website extension also can give clues to the reliability of the text, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å".bizÃ¢â¬ are typically commercial websites trying to sell things so will be harder to find the required articles. Although lots of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ sites are valuable sources of information and still can be used, it can help with narrowing the overall search process to bear in mind what sites contain beforehand. A good idea would be to browse online academic databases for more trustworthy source material. Some may require paid membership, but most universities have free access. These are much more beneficial as you can make your search more precise which will save you valuable time. Some good examples of websites to use are PsycINFO, Sirs and Proquest. Searching for particular databases related to the topic is also possible which can give you the most current search results. For example using the APA website to search for a database related to psychology. Create a rough bibliography Note down all the sources that are used at first on a separate piece of paper or in a file. This will be the basis for your works cited page. Write down the author, quote, page number and title of the publication used. An example of a rough sources page could look like this: Author Quote Title of Pub. Page number Sigmund Freud Ã¢â¬Å"How bold one gets when one is sure of being lovedÃ¢â¬ Letters of Sigmund Freud 1873-1939 (1961) 10-12 Later on it is possible to build upon this, but for now just the essential details are needed to follow the outline of the research paper. How to Outline Your Work When creating an outline for a research paper, there are some key elements that need to be considered. This will make sure the work has the correct structure and the writing will become easier and also researching the topic. The best articles will have a well thought out outline to reference and build upon later on. Here is a research paper outline template to use: I Introduction - A Brief history and background B Thesis Statement II Body - A. First point to argue (weakest) 1. Supporting findings 2. Any opposition B. Second point to argue 1. More Evidence 2. Opposing statement C Third point to argue (strongest) 1. Back up point 2. Contradictions III Conclusion - A Summarize the findings of each argument 1. First point 2. Second argument 3. Strongest Evidence B Restate the thesis C Concluding paragraph Introduction When writing a research paper introduction, you should include a thesis statement which is the the belief or argument that is being explored in the article. Try to make it around one or two sentences long and think carefully about it as all the work that is done is based around this. With a research paper, details of the topic can be included and also a brief description of how the thesis statement will be proven or disproven. Body Although for some writers it might be easier to start with putting the arguments down first and then develop them into paragraphs. As you can always go back and adjust the thesis statement according to the research findings as unpredictable results can always turn up. It is best to present the supporting evidence with the strongest point last. Remember to write down commentary to the research as this will make it unique. Try to make the article flow well from one paragraph to another so that each paragraph doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an abrupt end. Conclusion When thinking how to write a research paper conclusion the key differences are that each of the arguments needs to be summarized. It is best to start with restating the thesis statement and then move onto the summarized points of the research. When writing the conclusion, it is important to tie up the results nicely of the research and give the reader a sense of completion. Also try to use the best choice words in the conclusion as this will leave more of an impression on the reader. Creating a Bibliography To avoid any possibilities of plagiarism, it is vital to list all the sources that have been used. The best way to record all documentation is with a bibliography and can be done in different styles depending on the type of research paper. Typically APA (American Psychology Association) will include a Ã¢â¬Å"references listÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"BibliographyÃ¢â¬ at the end of the paper. In-text citations need to be utilized which includes the author's last name, date of publication for the work and a page number. MLA (Modern Language Association) used widely in humanities also adopts in-text citations and will also include a Ã¢â¬Å"works citedÃ¢â¬ page at the end of the document. Chicago citation style was first adopted by Chicago University Press in 1906 and takes the form of two documentation systems. Author date style: Mostly used by social and natural sciences includes a brief in text citation which is expanded upon in the Bibliography section. Notes bibliography style: More commonly utilized by those in humanities in particular literature and the arts. A note will be recorded in the footer usually and also an entry in the bibliography. Tips for the Initial Draft Organise your material Try to keep all the notes and evidence in order and perhaps employ some color coding system to keep track. Also order your notes and research to the outline that has been prepared this will help the writing stage. Support each idea It is crucial that every point made in the research paper has supporting evidence, otherwise it will not be valid and appear just as commentary. Highlight areas that need more work later If you go through the article and look for weak sections or points, you can mark these somehow maybe highlight them. After you continue with the rest of the paper, it is possible to go back and further develop these ideas. Add commentary where possible To make your paper stand out from the rest add in additional commentary possibly in the footnotes to give your article the personal touch. Use paraphrase techniques or summarising This is a great way to avoid too long sentences that might start to distract the attention of the reader. Make sure the paragraphs flow well into each other To make the paper seem like a continuous text rather than a list of paragraphs with evidence. Include good transitions between the paragraphs and utilize transition words and phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"all things consideredÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"another.Ã¢â¬ Editing your Draft Wait two or three days to go back and check Double check for any facts or figures that are wrong Organise ideas to the outline, change outline if needed Is the thesis proved well enough? All supporting information cited correctly? Check for grammatical errors and any repetition of words Is there a sense of conclusion to the paper? Run out of Time for all the Research? Do not worry if you have left your research paper until the last minute, come to our custom essay writing services page where you can get high quality writing or editing help. Ordering a custom paper couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be easier from our team of professional writers from various academic backgrounds. So you can save time for the more important things in life! Plagiarism - Take someone else's work or ideas, and passing them off as one's own. Ã¢â ©Ã¯ ¸Å½
Sunday, March 8, 2020
How Christmas Trees Became Popular in the 1800s The husband of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, gets the credit for making Christmas trees fashionable, as he famously set one up in Windsor Castle in the late 1840s. Yet there are reports of Christmas trees appearing in the United States years before the royal Christmas tree made a splash in American magazines. One classic yarn is that Hessian soldiers had been celebrating around a Christmas tree when George Washington caught them by surprise at the battle of Trenton. The Continental Army did cross the Delaware River to surprise the Hessians on Christmas night 1776, but there is no documentation of a Christmas tree having been present. Another story is that a Hessian soldier who happened to be in Connecticut set up Americas first Christmas tree in 1777. While thats accepted local lore in Connecticut, there also doesnt seem to be any documentation of the story. A German Immigrant and His Ohio Christmas Tree In the late 1800s a story circulated that a German immigrant, August Imgard, had set up the first American Christmas tree in Wooster, Ohio, in 1847. The story of Imgard appeared often in newspapers as a holiday feature. The basic version of the tale was that Imgard, after arriving in America, was homesick at Christmas. So he cut down the top of a spruce tree, brought it indoors, and decorated it with handmade paper ornaments and small candles. In some versions of the Imgard story he had a local tinsmith fashion a star for the top of the tree, and sometimes he was said to have decorated his tree with candy canes. There actually was a man named August Imgard who lived in Wooster, Ohio, and his descendants kept the story of his Christmas tree alive well into the 20th century. And there is no reason to doubt that he decorated a Christmas tree in the late 1840s. But there is a documented account of an earlier Christmas tree in America. First Documented Christmas Tree in America A professor at Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Charles Follen is known to have set up a Christmas tree in his home in the mid-1830s, more than a decade before August Imgard would have arrived in Ohio. Follen, a political exile from Germany, became known as a member of the abolitionist movement. The British writer Harriet Martineau visited Follen and his family at Christmas 1835 and later described the scene. Follen had decorated the top of a spruce tree with small candles and presents for his son Charlie, who was three years old. The first printed image of a Christmas tree in America seems to have occurred a year later, in 1836. A Christmas gift book titled A Strangers Gift, written by Herman Bokum, a German immigrant who, like Charles Follen, was teaching at Harvard, contained an illustration of a mother and several small children standing around a tree illuminated with candles. Earliest Newspaper Reports of Christmas Trees The Christmas tree of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert became known in America in the late 1840s, and in the 1850s reports of Christmas trees began appearing in American newspapers. A newspaper report described an interesting festival, a Christmas tree, which was viewed in Concord, Massachusetts on Christmas Eve 1853. According to the account in the Springfield Republican, all the children of the town participated and someone dressed as St. Nicholas distributed presents. Two years later, in 1855, the Times-Picayune in New Orleans published an article noting that St. Pauls Episcopal Church would be setting up a Christmas tree. This is a German custom, the newspaper explained, and one that has been of late years imported into this country, to the great delight of the young folks, who are its especial beneficiaries. The article in the New Orleans newspaper offers details indicating that many readers would be unfamiliar with the concept: A tree of evergreen, in size adapted to the dimensions of the room in which it is displayed, is selected, the trunk and branches of which are to be hung with brilliant lights, and laden from the lowest bought to the topmost branch, with Christmas gifts, delicacies, ornaments, etc., of every imaginable variety, forming a perfect storehouse of rare presents from old Santa Claus.What indeed can be more gratifying to children than to take them where their eyes will grow big and bright, feasting on such a sight on the eve of Christmas. A Philadelphia newspaper, The Press, published an article on Christmas Day 1857 which detailed how various ethnic groups had brought their own Christmas customs to America. It said: From Germany, in particular, comes the Christmas tree, hung all round with gifts of all sorts, interspersed with crowds of small tapers, which illuminate the tree and excite general admiration. The 1857 article from Philadelphia whimsically described Christmas trees as immigrants who had become citizens, stating, We are naturalizing the Christmas tree. And by the time, an employee of Thomas Edison created the first electric Christmas tree in the 1880s, the Christmas tree custom, whatever its origins, was permanently established. There are a number of unverified stories about Christmas trees in the White House in the mid-1800s. But it seems the first documented appearance of a Christmas tree wasnt until 1889. President Benjamin Harrison, who always had the reputation of being one of the less interesting presidents, was nonetheless very interested in Christmas celebrations. Harrison had a decorated tree placed in an upstairs bedroom of the White House, perhaps mostly for the entertainment of his grandchildren. Newspaper reporters were invited to see the tree and wrote fairly detailed reports about it. By the end of the 19th century, Christmas trees had become a widespread tradition throughout America.
Friday, February 21, 2020
What are the major arguments for both the advantages and disadvantages of(1) division of powers and checks and balances and (2) federalism - Essay Example ecutive branch had the complete power of the United States vested in its care then a significant amount of individuals could potentially feel alienated or oppressed by the decision-making (Joe). Similarly, the short time period of congressional representatives, and the life period of judicial representatives allows for differing perspectives to be thrown into the political mix. Still theorists recognize that there are many disadvantages. The United States operates under what has been termed Federalism. One of the primary tenants of Federalism is that there is a national government, but states that fall within the auspices of this governmental structure. There is then a further division of powers between the states and the national government. Just as with the branches of government, the checks and balances between state and national powers guard against corruption and allow for multiple perspectives. Still, the disadvantages with both the divisions of the branches and Federalism are that they create layers of bureaucratic government structure. These added layers hinder the quick passage of laws that could directly contribute to the betterment of society (Rice). Joe, Chris. "Drawbacks of Checks and Balances." . N.p., 2011. Web. 26 Mar 2012.